Formation of Plural Nouns

Posted on
  • by
  • in
  • ป้ายกำกับ:
  • Most plural nouns are formed by adding either -en or -s. Remember that the definite article is always de before plural nouns.

    1. -en (the n is pronounced softly) is added to most nouns, with a few spelling changes

    boek - boeken book(s)
    jas - jassen coat(s)
    haar - haren hair(s)
    huis - huizen house(s)

    Spelling changes: Words with long vowels (aa, ee, oo, and uu) drop the one vowel when another syllable is added. Words with the short vowels (a, e, i, o and u) double the following consonant to keep the vowels short. The letters f and s occur at the end of words or before consonants, while the letters v and z occur in the middle of words before vowels. (These spelling rules are also used for conjugating verbs, so it's best to memorize them as soon as possible.)

    2. -s is added to nouns ending in the unstressed syllables -el, -em, -en, and -er (and -aar(d), -erd, -ier when referring to people), foreign words and to most nouns ending in an unstressed vowel

    tafel - tafels table(s)
    jongen - jongens boy(s)
    tante - tantes aunt(s)
    bakker - bakkers baker(s)

    Nouns ending in the vowels -a, -o, and -u add an apostrophe before the s: foto's, paraplu's

    Irregular forms

    3. Some nouns containing a short vowel do not double the following consonant in the plural before -en. The plural vowel is then pronounced as long.

    bad - baden bath(s)
    dag - dagen day(s)
    spel - spelen game(s) (like the Olympics, smaller games are spellen)
    glas - glazen glass(es)
    weg - wegen road(s)

    4. A few neuter nouns take the ending -eren (or -deren if the noun ends in -n)

    blad - bladeren leaf(leaves)
    kind - kinderen child(ren)
    ei - eieren egg(s)
    been - beenderen bone(s) [Note: been - benen leg(s)]
    lied - liederen song(s)
    volk - volkeren nation(s), people

    5. Nouns ending in -heid have a plural in -heden.

    mogelijkheid - mogelijkheden possibility(ies)

    6. Some other common irregular plurals are:

    stad - steden town(s)
    schip - schepen ship(s)
    lid - leden member(s)
    koe - koeien cow(s)

    0 ความคิดเห็น: